Are there any Catholic historians or serious Medievalists among our number? I need to track down an 11th century liturgical calendar.
You could tag Falconer who may have some professional input here, and you may also want to check out various Ars Magica resources for calendars, since the game's default year is set in 1190 AD (at least in the first few editions).
Post by Scott Anderson on Nov 14, 2017 5:56:26 GMT -6
Generally, I would like to find a Catholic liturgical calendar from before 1570.
Specifically, one of a kind used in Normandy in 1050-1100.
The reason is that I'm writing a YA historical-fiction novel where the POV character in one of the plot threads is a Norman Benedictine monk. He would see events unfold in the context of the stories he would study on particular days, the psalms they would read, the ordinal garb they would wear, etc.
I have found a copy of the Hours correct for that time but it's just not as helpful as I would hope.
My stretch goal would be to find a dietary restriction schedule. But considering that the food was so completely alien 1,000 years ago, I have been happy to fudge it so far with recipes from somewhat later: 1300-1600, excluding or substituting out New World ingredients.
People in the Society of Saint Pius X (cf. Angelus Press) will know. From an outsider’s point of view, as a group they seem interested in how things were prior to the reforms of the 20th century, but liturgical geeks in their number don’t stop there. I can make some inquiries via a connection I have.
What precisely do you mean by "liturgical calendar?"
A document that tells what saints are venerated on each day, what day of the religious season it is, what vestments to wear, the psalms and bible passages for the day, the dietary restrictions.
They are easy to find for the modern day and for most mainline religions but finding one from 1000 years ago is harder.
Well, for saints, they're fixed days. Just get a modern calendar of saints' days and delete any that were canonized after 1100 AD.
A little research on Google should tell you when the modern vestment colors were incorporated. In the 1100s I'd be surprised if it was as comprehensive as it is now. I'm not sure when the colored vestments came in, but remember a lot of "ancient church practices" were invented by the Oxford movement in the 1830s.
As far as psalms and scripture, I would be very surprised if there was a lectionary that early. Again, a bit of Google research on monastic life should answer that question.
I'd start by finding the Rule of Benedict and working from there.
Post by tetramorph on Nov 15, 2017 17:24:20 GMT -6
Scott Anderson, gronan is right in the main. They did have liturgical colors, but I don't know what they were at that time. (Sorry!) And yes, they would have had a pretty elaborate lectionary at that point, but, again, I wouldn't know exactly where to go for that. Sorry!
He who knows, games not. He who games, knows not. -- Lao Tzu
Readings — I believe the epistle and gospel books themselves were compiled for liturgical use and would contain assigned pericope designations for each day (and only include such pericopes).
Saints — there was a general, or universal, Martyrology of Jerome and a later Martyrology of Usuard; however, the more local and more recent saints would also be in veneration, and in fact receive far more devotion than the universal saints.
Colors — they would have been highly localized and unofficial, and the whole rainbow was probably not used in most places. In the Orthodox East, the rubrics have always only specified light and dark vestments (resurrectional and penitential); classically light = white or gold, and dark = red or purple.
Up until the Fourth Century of the Church, it seems that all the vestments used in worship were white in color, at least according to Pope Benedict XIV who wrote about such things in the 18th Century. After that other colors began to work their way into the church’s liturgical life.
It seems that during the medieval era the various fabrics and colors used varied depending on a community’s resources. In fact, the big holy days, like Easter and Christmas, the local cleric must just pull out whatever happened to be the nicest, fanciest vestment he had, regardless of what hue it was.
By the time of Pope Innocent III in the 13th Century, four main liturgical colors had come into use: white, red, green, and black. Although this too varied from region to region.
In the later medieval period, it seems that Black was the color of choice for Advent and Lent, both being penitential seasons
The oldest English liturgical color sequence is that of Lichfield, c. A.D. 1240 from the statutes of Bishop Pateshull:
Advent and Lent, black Passiontide, red Christmas, most precious vestments St John, Circumcision, BVM, Virgins, St Michael, white Epiphany, Apostles, Martyrs, St John Baptist, varied colours St Mary Magdalene, Epiphany till Lent and Pentecost till Advent, according to the will of the sacristan
There also is this instruction appended: “All things must be modified accordin to the means of the church.”
Put that together as you will, but certainly you see some patterns.
Last Edit: Nov 15, 2017 20:00:19 GMT -6 by Falconer
Drat, I'm sorry I missed this. This is exactly within my area of research, I could've provided you with some detailed information about the state of what we currently know, don't know, and pretend we know. The period 1050-1100 in England was full of very interesting changes in the liturgy.
Regarding vestments, we have less concrete information, but there are a few hints to suggest that churches kept as many changes of vestment as they could afford, and we certainly have some colourful anecdotes. For instance, Lanfranc provided Christ Church Canterbury with gold and silver plates for the performance of the liturgy, along with altar cloth and mass-vestments laden with gold thread and embroidered 'with dragons and strange birds', and a processional cope adorned with silver bells along the fringe and clasped by a topaz brooch set with amethysts. By contrast, when Leofric first came to Exeter Cathedral in 1050 there was supposedly only one ratty vestment and one set of antiquated service books (although this is likely an exaggeration, or perhaps was a statement about one of the cathedral's chapels or subsidiary churches). Either way, by the time Leofric died in 1072 Exeter had exploded into one of the most active scriptoria and liturgical centres in the country.
Brilliant. Sorry, I just saw that you were specifically looking for Norman information and not both Norman and English. Which monastery is your protagonist from?
Either way, most of the major issues of religious change were actually the same on both sides of the Channel in the years 1050-1100. The two regions shared many churchmen and church books both before and after the Conquest, and kept many of the same local saints, regardless of whether they were originally 'English' or 'Norman' (or Cornish or Welsh or Irish or Saxon or French).
Perhaps the only truly obvious difference is that the Norman monastics considered themselves to be much more austere than the English, whom they considered rather dainty and spoiled spendthrifts who would venerate anyone as a saint if they had a free day for it. Still, that has to taken with a grain of salt, since the Norman calendars record just as many saints feasts as the Anglo-Saxon ones do, except perhaps the most rigid Cluniac ones (but there were similarly reformed monasteries in England too).
Some of my own research is in the cult of Mary in England and Normandy in the 11th century. The English were absorbed in a rather extravagant and remarkable devotion to Mary, with special feasts and everything, and some believe that the more severe Normans generally cracked down on that under Lanfranc. Personally I think that's false. I think the Normans also had an unusual devotion to the cult of Mary, and much of what we consider "Anglo-Saxon" liturgical customs in that regard were actually "Anglo-Norman," even decades before the Conquest, and only began "blaming" the English for the practice in the 1120s after the Cistercians began a campaign against much of the Marian liturgy.